Create a Mobile App for your Class Today!

One of the big buzz words I hear at conferences is that everyone wants to create a “mobile app”. There is something special about seeing the tiny little square on your mobile device and knowing that you created it. More importantly, mobile apps and resources increase students interaction with coursework and can help them ultimately learn the material better.

Educators are developing mobile apps as resources or supplements to their courses. They may be course-based practices covering topics to help students prepare for an assessment or just a few web pages linked together that look and interact well on a mobile device. I’ll be honest, I am new to developing apps so please realize there is a lot I don’t know but I have a few things I’ve tested out and wanted to share with you what I’ve learned. You can take this and run with it if you like. If anything, I hope to give you a headstart if you are excited to develop a mobile app.

Want to make an app for the Android?

You are lucky! Creating a basic app for the Android system is about as complicated as filing out a form. Using Android App Inventor, you design how the app will look by moving “puzzle pieces” to set your app’s behavior. You create it all online and the app appears on your phone.

Here is a demo video to give you an overview of how simple it is to create an app for the Android.

So if you want to test it out, try it and let me know in the comments area below what you think.

On a side note: 55% of our students (that have smartphones) use the Android system so this takes care of a big chunk of them. However, the rest say they have an iOS mobile device which is quite a bit more complicated. Less than 5% of our students are using mobile devices outside of Android & iOS but your student use may differ.

Want to make an app for the iOS?

Whenever I speak with educators about developing their own mobile apps, they usually tell me that developing for the Android is easy but the IOS is more challenging. I agree!

However, it is possible!  I used Phonegap, an open source mobile framework which allows you to drag your HTML files into it and create an app that houses those HTML files to create an app that works on the iOS, Android, Blackberry, WebOS, Windows, Simbian, etc. Here is an introduction demo to Phonegap.

This is nice because you may already have some HTML files you use in your courses. Or better yet you can create some new HTML files using Dreamweaver or a tool that publishes to HTML (like Softchalk, Lectora, or Hotpotatoes).

I’ll be honest. This is much more tech heavy than using the Android Appmaker but it also lets you convert your HTML pages to be viewed for different mobile devices. In order to create an app for iOS you have to have an Apple Developer account (including paying the fee to Apple to become a Developer). Once you have that, and you have the HTML files you want housed in the app, you follow the steps here to build an iOS app using Phone gap.

The nice thing is once you have it set up, you can simply drag HTML files over to the WWW folder in Phonegap and it will convert your HTML files so they appear nicely in the app.I created a practice using Hotpotatoes (a free open source tool to create practices that are simple HTML files) and it worked surprisingly well.

Ever heard of hotpotatoes?

 

One advantage to using Phonegap is that you technically can use whatever tool you like to create HTML files and then send them through Phonegap to “app-ize” them. 😉

Hotpotatoes is a freeware sofware program that lets you easily create multiple choice/true false, etc practices and it publishes the practices in HTML files. Using phonegap you can take these HTML files and house them in an app container whch appears on your device.

Here are some screenshots of the app I made using Hotpotatoes. Warning: Its not a beauty! I didn’t spend much time working on the design, its pretty much what Hotpotatoes publishes (HTML) when you make a practice. But I did replace some of the links in the navigation with Icons (by opening the index.htm hotpotatoes file in Dreamweaver and editing it). This is a work in progress. All the practice types worked great in the app. I was surprised. Even the audio (MP3 files) and pictures (PNG files) worked without a hitch once I sent them through phonegap. The next step for me would be to open each of the HTML files in Dreamweaver and make them look better.

TriviagameaappHomescreenNumbersPicturequestionsAudioquestionsChristmascrosswordAnimalfillinblanksScarymultiplechoice

Looking at a Hotpotatoes Practice that was converted to an iPhone app using Phonegap.

Steps to use Hotpotatoes & Phonegap to create an app for iOS:

1) Create the hotpotatoes practice. It can be multiple choice, true false, fill in the blank, and there are some crossword puzzles and things too you can use too. Link them all together. You save them just like you would normally save practices that are developed in Hotpotatoes. Keep them all in one folder (which you will drag to Phonegap).

2) Setup an iOS Developer Account. This costs $$$ but is necessary.

3) Setup phonegap.

4) Then you drag all the HTML files into the WWW phonegap folder. Make sure that there is a file called “index.html (not just index.htm as hotpotatoes creates)”and that the HTML on the “index.html” file is identical to the hotpotatoes index page (copy and paste the HTML). This page will be the home page of the app.  Click “Clean” and then “RUN” or “BUILD” while your iOS device is connected. It will create the little app on your iPhone. There is actually a multistep process to get phonegap workign for you but once its working, you are good to go.

3) The next step is submitting your app to the iTunes store for approval. I haven’t gotten that far yet but I’ll let you know how it goes. So far everything works on my iPhone. I’ll keep you posted.

The phonegap app also works on platforms including iOS, Android, Windows, Blackberry, webOS, symbian, and bada.

Q: Do you know of tips or other app inventors/app creator tools that are even easier to use? Android appinventor is a cinch, but I’d love to know if there are other tools that make creating an app learning even easier (particularly for the iOS). Let me know. Thanks!

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13 Superstar Mobile Apps for Blended Learning!

This is the last of three posts on 13 Resources, 13 Tools, and 13 Mobile Apps for Blended Learning. If you haven’t checked out Mobile Learning Design or 8 Ways to Jumpstart Mobile Learning, you may find some helpful tips there as you begin to explore the exciting world of mobile learning. Here also is an infographic of iPad apps using Bloom’s Taxonomy I found recently.

First important question: Why is mobile learning so big right now?

Mobile technology is increasing amazingly fast. Just check out this video on some statistics!

Thanks to the variety of apps available, there are numerous ways to engage students by leveraging this technology. Below are only 13 of the many apps out there. Have a favorite that is not listed? Share it with us in the comments area below.

13 Superstar Mobile Apps for Blended Learning!

1.  GroupMeDiscussion boards can be a great way to have students share ideas and thoughts around a topic. Groupme make this easier by allowing you to set up groups of people by cell phone number. If anyone adds a comment, the rest of the group is notified by text. The cool thing about this is that if some of the students don’t have smartphones, they can still send and receive texts to participate. We used this at a conference recently to keep us all connected. No more being tethered to a non-mobile and less efficient discussion board! Click here for a video app review of GroupMe.

2. UstreamA few weeks ago, my nephew came to play football at the BSU Bronco stadium. My brothers all wished they could have been there to see him play, but thanks to Ustream, they were able to watch it from home! I used this app and held out the phone and streamed the game to them. It lets you share a URL to email or facebook/twitter. Just hold the phone out like you are filming. My brothers were actually surprised at how clear the audio & video was. No, they couldn’t really identify my nephew but it was a lot of fun. The polling and chat features make it somewhat interactive. This could be great if you want to bring in a visitor to your class or broadcast from somewhere “on location” or outside.

3. AurasmaAurasma uses augmented reality. Add levels of augmented reality into your classroom for a virtual field trip. I would suggest you download the free Aurasma Lite and go to this site and check out some of the auras. You will see that as you view the images with the app, they come alive with animations, sound, and video.  Imagine your classroom with hidden layers that you created and send students around to view the hidden videos/pics/etc using the app. The possibilities are endless!

4. Layars Think about how much information is on the Internet about the town where you live. If you were to search the Internet, you would find multiple videos, images, crimes, neighborhood information, news articles, etc. that relate to your area. Now imagine if the GPS in your mobile device could link all this information depending upon where you are located, and then show you location specific relevant information. The Layars app does this remarkably well! It ties in websites and uses GPS to tag them to your location. You turn on the different layers and see different things depending upon where you are. Go to the courthouse and turn on a layar and you will see youtube videos and images about that location.You can turn on the wikipedia layar or any of the hundreds of others. If you want students to explore the history, culture, or city surroundings in their area, this app really makes it easy and enjoyable.You can also read here about why one guy thinks this is the coolest app in the world.

Here is a video on the Layars app. As you watch it consider how this technology may create exciting and engaging ways for learning in your course.


5. DropboxYou may have heard about the cloud that allows files to be stored on the Internet and accessed from multiple computers. Dropbox is a great app that allows you to have a folder on your computer at work, laptop at home, and mobile device. Inside that folder you can access images, videos, and other files. Students can easily share work on files and projects as well using dropbox or sharing the folders with their teacher. Here is a video on Dropbox for more information. Now with the iOS 5, there is also the iCloud for iOS which is similar to Dropbox.

6. Voice ThreadVoicethread allows you to set up groups to collaborate around a video, picture, text, or any type of multimedia. Students can post comments similar to a discussion board, but they can comment by text or audio recording. The voicethread app makes these even easier by allowing you to stay connected and post & view comments from anywhere. If you want to learn more click here to learn more about Voicethread Mobile.

7.  Join.meHave you ever wanted to share your computer screen with someone? Now you can! This app makes demonstrating how to navigate a website or a software tool a cinch. The nice thing about this app is that you can also share your computer screen to a mobile device (which allows for chatting back and forth). Its free and simple to use. The only con is that you can’t share your mobile device screen (only desktops can share). However, you can view the desktop being shared on your mobile device.

8. Skype Skype allows free calls and video face to face meetings. Why not bring in professionals that use the topic you are teaching in their everyday life. Help students learn the relevance of any topic by having an outside visitor come and answer their questions virtually. Teaching Zoology? Have a visitor from the zoo skype in. Teaching culture? Have a class from another country skype in and learn from other people. The world is smaller once you start using apps like this.

9. QR Code Maker & ReaderThere are many ways to use QR codes for blended learning. I posted earlier a video on just a few ways you could use QR codes from McGuffy, PA.  QR readers are free and allow you to scan the code and jump quickly to a website, video, or other file. Instead of remembering long websites, once you scan it, it’s stored on your phone. We use QR codes for practices so students can scan them and then have them on their phone ready to view and practice whenever they like.

10. Animoto Animoto lets you upload images, pictures, and text, select from their audio library or upload your own, and then quickly make it into an exciting collage video. This is a great way for students to use their creative skills to develop brief presentations on the topics you cover in class. You can do it on a computer as well but this Animoto app is so easy to use I had to include it here.

11. Algebra Touch Math is one of the areas where you never really have enough practice.  This app allows students to practice Algebra. There is a free version you can try out. It makes a great supplement for students struggling to grasp Algebraic concepts.

 12. Star Walk This is a must have for any Science or Astronomy teacher. It uses GPS to display the stars, constellations, and planets all relative to how you hold the device. Even if no stars are visible, you can still see them with the StarWalk app.

13. TourWrist Take a tour of far away places or create and share your own 360 degree tour. You likely see this technology when house hunting with 360 virtual tours but this app makes it easy for you to create your own and the view responds to where and how you hold the mobile device. Imagine it being a lens you are looking through to view Egyptian Pyramid, Machu Picchu, or even the White House. Engulf your students in virtual field trips that would never otherwise be possible with this app. Exciting!

 

What other Superstar Mobile Apps have you found that are great for mobile learning? What concerns do you have with using apps like this for learning? Leave a comment.

Lucky 13: Excellent Tools for Blended Learning!

Creating something can be an overwhelmingly rewarding experience. You may have read the Lucky 13: Resources for Blended Learning list I posted last week. This week I wanted to share 13 online tools that educators or students can use that inspire creativity and learning. Tools are great because they can help teachers create original and engaging content for their courses or they can be recommended for student’s use on projects. Creating something related to a topic can achieve one of the highest levels of critical thinking so encouraging students to use these tools for projects is a win/win situation for any educator. If you just want to use them to develop your content, then that’s great too!

Here are 13 Excellent Tools for Blended Learning:

#1. Jing Screencapture. I use this tool all the time. It’s made by Techsmith, the same company that makes Captivate, another great tool but this one is free and excellent. Use it to take a screenshot of your desktop. Easily select a portion of your computer screen and select an area you wish to copy. Then use the tools available to draw call-outs, textbooks, shapes, and arrows. When I make tutorials I often use this tool to help guide students through steps. You can also create a video screencast using the tool complete with audio. Imagine how helpful it is to show to demonstrate how to do something with audio walking the student through a process, website, etc. It is a great tool and even makes sharing the information a cinch. If you haven’t tried it check it out. I have the paid version of Snagit on my computer, but instead I use Jing for most of what I do.

#2. Imagination Cubed Instant Whiteboard. Very simple tool you can use to draw out a process or explain something. It has shape options and a pen/ marker to draw with as well. Simply draw what you like and then save it. The student can quickly watch the entire process of how you drew it. I think this would be a great tool for showing math practice examples. For me at least, I can use all the examples I can get, so something like this would be pretty cool!

#3. Animoto. An alternative to using PowerPoint for presentations. This nifty tool allows you to upload images, and create text to appear over it, similar to a slideshow but then you select music to go with it, hit publish, and wallah you have an interestingly original presentation. It is much more fun than just slides going by. Students love it because it allows them to be very creative with the text. It also requires that they be concise with the message they are portraying. The 30 second version is free and there are educational licenses available as well. By the way, there is an Animoto app now too!

#4. Voki. Create an avatar of yourself. It is very addicting and fun. You can select a person to represent you and then either type in the text to make him/her speak or you can record yourself speaking and the mouth moves with you. It’s a fun and personable way to connect with your students through announcements or other communications.

#5. Xtranormal. Warning! Once you start playing around with this, you may be distracted for the rest of the day. 😉 I love this tool. Use it or even better have your students use it to explain a topic. You select a character and a background. Then by using type or drag and drop options you create a cartoon video. It is so easy to use. I love it for Foreign Languages since the avatars will say whatever you type in there in English, French, German, and Chinese. It is so fun and students will never complain about creating a presentation to share again if they use this tool. Very fun!

#6. Voicethread. Have you ever posted a comment on a chat board or blog? Well this is much better than that. With Voicethread you can have students interact and collaborate all around a piece of media (video, image, document, etc). They can post comments by text, audio, or video comments. Voicethread also recently released a mobile app that makes it even more accessible to students. There are free versions and pay for versions with more options.

#7. Audacity. Do you want to create a podcast? This is an excellent open source tool which you can use to record your voice and quickly publish to MP3. It is widely used and works very well. An online alternative that is fantastic is Aviary’s Podcast Maker. On a side note: check out the whole Aviary.com suite. It has several good online tools for image editing and music creation.

#8. Hotpotatoes. This trusty friend has been used by educators for years to create multiple choice, true false, and fill in the blank practices. It is free and very easy to use. It isn’t the most engaging of sorts, but practices are so important for students to grasp a concept so the more opportunities for them to strategically practice something, the more prepared they’ll be for assessments. In a face to face classroom where you have 25 different students, you might suggest specifically targeted practices for the student.

#9. Many Eyes Data Visualizations. Sometimes it’s impossible to effectively explain large amounts of data. Data doesn’t have to be boring and “pie chartie”. Just check out a few of the visualization options available and you will not want to go back to boring basic data charts ever again. It’s much easier to get your point across using tools like this and its interactive which engages people much more than a flat image of a chart. Another great tool is the Google Public Data Explorer. Just check out this example here: The World’s Fertility Rate.

#10. Big Marker Webconferencing. You may use Wimba, Elluminate, Collaborate, or other web conferencing tools, but one free option for webconferencing that is getting a lot of attention and is free is Big Marker. With this tool you can various participants on at the same time, desktop share, draw using the tools available, and have webinars and webconferences with students. Think of all the great guest appearances you can have in your courses using a web conferencing tool like this? Suddenly the world is much smaller when you can bring almost anyone into your class. We also use a tool like this for Math tutoring afterhours as well as teacher office hours.

#11. Collaborize Education Platform. There are many learning management system options but this one I played around with a bit and I like it. It’s free so it may not have all the bells and whistles but it is pretty cool. It’s a free collaborative education platform for students & teachers. I set up an account and was surprised at how simple it was to use as well as all the different options I had.

#12. Google Education Apps. This is a suite of software tools like no other. We use this for email, document, spreadsheet, presentation sharing & collaboration, chatting, calendar, etc. It is fantastic! If you are a district or college administrator, I would definitely check this out. I can confidently say these that these educational apps help everyone I work with be more productive and collaborative on our projects, processes, and creations. It is much more than just an email service.

#13.Realplayer Video Downloader. Okay this one is not something you can use to create something but it is so helpful I’m listing it as a way to create convenience. ;-). Once you install this free tool, whenever you see any video on the web ( in your browser) such as youtube, etc, you can hover your mouse over it and click the “download” button which downloads an .FLV (flash video) version right to your computer. This is so handy! Then if you need to convert it to another format, the realplayer tool does that as well.  You can even convert it to mobile device friendly format (please be sure that you obey copyright and attribute anything you download). Realplayer is not my default media player by any means but it sure is great for downloading videos from the web.

What other tools are you using for blended learning?

Lucky 13: 13 Free Resources for Blended Learning

Halloween is officially over so we need be superstituous no more. A black cat actually ran right in front of my car the other day and yet it survived and I’m still here, so no bad luck yet! 13 is sometimes considered unlucky, but today and for the next few posts its going to be a very lucky number. Today I’ll share 13 of the best online free resources for Blended Learning I’ve found. Later I’ll post 13 of the best web tools for Blended Learning, and then 13 great mobile learning tools for Blended. If you really don’t like the number 13, just leave a comment with one of your favorite resources and then there will be 14. 🙂

Lucky 13: Free Resources for Blended Learning

#1. World Digital Library. If you teach culture, history, languages, etc, you will want to know about this site. First you select the time (from 8000BCE to 2011AD) on the time indicator. Then you click anywhere on the world and it zooms in with pics, vidoes, and text (all free primary resources) to learn about the world. 

#2. SAS Curriculum Pathways. A few years ago this resources was somewhat expensive but of amazing quality. Now still amazing quality but free for educational use. High quality videos, practices, and content that would normally be costly to purchase. Its great! Content areas include English, Math, Science, and Spanish. The objects can be linked right in your LMS too.

#3. MERLOT. Multimedia Resources for Online Learning. This is a giant repository of peer reviewed educational materials. Everything from presentation slides, videos, lessons, websites, etc for a multitude of content areas.

#4. LangMedia. This one is a must for World Language Educators. Resources are organized by language and cover 40+ languages. There are videos of native speakers as well as audio clips and great content on culture, life, religion, history, etc of different countries and languages.

#5. Wikibooks. Similar to the great wikipedia, there are whole books you can download and use for free. Wikibooks are community created and community vetted so you’ll want to consider that when you review them. If you are a K12 educator, you may be also interested also in CK12.org for customizable, free, curriculum-aligned content.

#6. Hippocampus. Hippocampus provides high quality, multimedia content on general topics for secondary and higher education courses. Its all free and they have some amazing content. Its part of a project with MIT. Some topics are Math, Science, and Social Studies.

#7. Teachertube. This is similar to youtube except that the content is filtered and is all educationally based. If you have some great videos you’ve made upload them here to share with other educators. If you need some lesson vidoes on a particular topic, its a great place to check.

#8. TED Videos. This site contains rivetting talks, updated daily with remarkable people talking about amazing things in the world. It has excellent speakers on topics like: Technology, Entertainment, Design, Business, Science, and Global Issues.

#9. MathTV.com Where was MathTV when I took Algebra? Math.TV has video tutorials on a variety of math topics with several examples of how to work through each problem. The best part is that you have multiple teachers teaching the content. You can choose from 3 or 4 different people going through similar problems so you get different perspectives and clear explanations on how to complete the problems.

#10. KhanAcademy. Another fantastic resource for Math & Science is Khan Academy. There are clear, concise and easy to understand video demonstration tutorials on related topics. Some schools are actually flipping their classroom, having students watch these videos at home and then coming to class to work on the assignments together. If you just need a pool of videos to draw from when referring struggling students, this is a great option.

#11. National Library of Virtual Manipulatives. Looking for simulation practices for Math? Topics include: Number & Operations, Algebra, Geometry, Measurement, and Data Analysis.

#12. Biodigital Human. Want to explore the Anatomy or Disease of the Human Body? This 3D site, lets you zoom in and view the whole body and individual organs and the effects of disease. It is amazing and easy to use. You may have to use the Google browser to support the Advanced Graphics for it. Its very cool and much more engaging then pictures of organs or just memorizing handout diagrams of Anatomy.

#13. We Choose the Moon. This simulation recreates the moon take off and landing along with background history and information. I wasn’t alive when it happened but viewing this simulation really makes me feel like I’m right there. This is why technology can be so amazing and engaging for learning. I can hardly wait for more learning simulations like this to become available. If you are teaching Science, Space, History, or anything to do with the Moon this is a must see.

 

What other blended learning resources are there? Feel free to share your thoughts in the comments area below.

8 Ways to Jumpstart Mobile Learning in Your Courses!

I’ve been counting down the posts for the time when I get to share these tools and tricks on mobile learning options since starting this blog. Previously I’ve posted on Mobile Learning Design and our 100% Mobile Blackboard course. Today I’ll share several different ways to jump right in and start implementing mobile learning in courses.

8 Ways to Jumpstart Mobile Learning in Your Courses

1.  Learn Mobile Design. I would start by reviewing principles of mobile learning design. Just knowing basic principles of instructional design for mobile devices can go a long way as you decide how you want to approach mobile learning. It also helps you to consider what things you may already be doing that can be slightly tweaked to leverage this technology. Here is a post I did recently on 14 Crucial Tips for Mobile Learning Design.

2.  Use Surveys. Before you start mobile learning, consider your students. Do they have access to mobile devices? What would they like to do with them? Think of questions to put on the survey that will give your institution a good insight into the mobile device usage of your students. This will help later on when you decide which types of mobile devices to support, how many you extra devices you might need to have accessible, and overall help you understand your student’s perspective. We sent out a survey to our students and they gave us great feedback. A couple tools that I think that are good for surveys are surveymonkey and polleverywhere.

Surveymonkey – Is a free survey tool (free version and a pay version available). Check out this tool. You’d be surprised how helpful surveys can be to help you gain insight into what your students are thinking. It is very easy to create them and then you just either email or embed the survey link in your website. Be sure and include a “respond by” date and incentives are always great too (extra credit points, etc)! Surveymonkey works on mobile devices as well.

Polleverywhere – This tool embeds right into your Power Point presentation or site so as you present to the class, you can ask them questions. They simply whip out their mobile devices and text the response which shows up automatically on your slide.  This is a lot like the really expensive clickers but it leverages the mobile devices students already have. There is a free version (I think up to 30 students) and then there are cost versions. I’ve been able to use the free version so far but there are some great reasons to upgrade to the pay version if you can.

3.  Podcasts & Vodcasts. Why not make a podcast of your lesson? There are some great tools that allow you to easily record an audio message and then share it with students. Then they can listen to it on the bus, as they wait, or wherever they go. Podcasts don’t take much time and students appreciate the option to rewind and review topics you are presenting. You can put them on a website and send the students a link, or just put them on CD or a jumpdrive.

Audacity is a great free open source tool for making podcasts. Once installed you simply click the record button and export the podcast to your computer.

Aviary.com is a free online tool for creating podcasts! It’s part of the fantastic suite of online tools they provide. You can also add intro music to your podcasts to make them sound even more professional. Once you are done, just publish your masterpieces to your computer as MP3.

For video podcasts (where it shows you on a webcam in addition the audio, you can use  Garageband (free with Mac) or Windows Movie Maker (free with Windows).  Just be sure and publish the video to a format the works on mobile devices (and test it to be sure it works).

Don’t want to reinvent the wheel? No problem! There are an ever-growing library of podcasts on almost any topic. Simply perform a search like “Spanish podcasts” and you may be surprised that you find just what you are looking for. You can also use itunes U to locate educational podcasts.

4.  QR Codes. QR Codes are similar to barcodes but you take a picture with your mobile device (that has the QR code app reader on it) and it will pull up videos, websites, or other links. We actually put a QR code in Blackboard so students can take a picture of their computer screen while working on a unit and have the practice stored on their mobile device for easy reference later on when they want to practice. This keeps them from having to log into BB or remembering long URL codes.  Here is a link to a great QR code maker (Kayway) that is free. QR code readers for mobile devices and regular computers using webcams are also available. Still not convinced? Check out this video McGuffey SD in PA made on how their school uses QR Codes. Pretty neat stuff!

5.  Mobile Practices & Learning Games. I’m a big fan of practices for students so they can grasp the particular concepts that they struggle with. If every topic has some non-graded practices or learning games for them, they can self-select the practices that will help most. This individualized learning can impact their assignment and test scores dramatically.

Softchalk – Softchalk is a simple tool to create multiple choice, matching, true false, etc practices. It isn’t free but they have a SCORM tool and it works with learning management systems quite well. We developed mobile practices for each unit of some of our courses and placed the practices prior to the unit quiz. This way, students can practice and prepare for the quizzes on the go.

Raptivity – Raptivity has a huge selection of learning game & practice interactives which we use in our courses. Most are flash-based, but there are several that work with HTML5 so they work on mobile devices. The tool is somewhat intuitive and you type in the questions and answers and publish the games to your computer. Similar to Softchalk, the files can then be placed on a server or a CD/jumpdrive, and shared with students.

Hotpotatoes – This trusty tool has been free for awhile and a lot of educators use it to create simple practices for their courses. It’s great for that! While not specifically developed for mobile devices, I found that if I create a hotpotato practice, it creates an HTML file. Then, if I open that HTML in notepad and add the following metadata, the practice will snap to fit the mobile device that views the practice (making it look nice on mobile devices). Its a bit of a “duct-tape” way to do it, but its free, pretty simple and works! Students are just thrilled to have the practices mobile! 😉

If you do use Hotpoatoes, here is the HTML to make it snap to fit a mobile device:
<meta name = “viewport” content = “width = device-width”> <meta name = “viewport” content = “initial-scale = 1.0”>

The metatag HTML above actually works for a lot of different HTML pages. Try it out with your HTML page and see how it looks.

MobileStudy – This is a free tool which lets you easily create practice questions for students and then publish them to their mobile devices.

AppInventor for Android – This tool lets you create apps for your courses. It’s free to use and very intuitive. However, it only works for Android mobile devices. iOS also has an app inventor but I heard that is it not quite as easy as this one for Android. You pretty much just build your little site using their tool and publish it. Pretty cool!

6.  Mobile Blogs & Communication Tools. Students want to be in contact with their peers. Thankfully, there are some great ways you can incorporate collaboration and communication using mobile devices.

Mobile VoiceThread – Voice thread is an online tool you can use to create conversation among students around a graphic, video, website, or any topic. Students can use their mobile devices and post verbal or text comments on a particular picture, video, etc.

Posterous & Blogger – Both of these blog sites have the ability to create a private blogs and can share only with your students if you choose. They both also have an app so students can post comments or posts to the blog using mobile devices. I have two blogs, one on posterous and one on Blogger. Both tools have advantages and weaknesses.

7.  Educational Apps. It’s really important that you check out what mobile apps are available in the content area you are teaching. Because of the touch screen of a mobile device, apps are creating new ways to interact with content for learning. The Star Walk app, Algebra Touch app, and Fooducate apps are just a few examples.

If you decide to incorporate educational apps into your courses, keep in mind what devices students have access to. If you don’t want to restrict them to a certain device, you can find an alternative app for each of the main mobile devices (can be time-consuming). You will also need to decide if you’ll only use the free apps or paid apps as well. There are many educational apps to choose from.

8.  Use a Mobile LMS. If you are already using a Learning Management System, you are likely familiar with some of the benefits of an LMS. However, now there are some mobile options for accessing content with them as well. I posted earlier about our course using Blackboard Mobile, but there are actually several different options.

Thanks to Idaho Digital Learning, here is an archived webinar of this presentation that was given to faculty this summer (2011).

These are just a few ways to incorporate learning devices in courses. I’m sure there are many more ways that I didn’t include, so please let me know what you think in the comments area below. Also, if you are on Twitter, do a search for #mlearning #mobilelearning #mobile or #edtech and you will find an enormous amount of great tools and apps that are available for educators using mobile devices.

A 100% Mobile Course Using Blackboard Mobile: PE

About a year ago, we sent our students a survey to ask them how they would like to interact with their courses using mobile devices. Not surprisingly, they overwelmingly responded that they wanted to do it all!

55% of our students (Idaho HS students) responded that they had access to a mobile device with Internet access. An additional 5% said that they plan to have access within the next year.

Survey: What do students want to do with mobile devices?

  • #1 – Check my grades – 84%
  • #2 – Discussion boards – 65%
  • #3 – Complete Assignments – 50%
  • #4 – Review with Practices, Podcasts, & Mobile activities – 45%

Here are just a few of the suggestions we received from students:

  • Make all the assignments compatible with mobile devices 😉
  • Make class work compatible with mobile devices. We’re entering a world of which includes many new innovative tools that are taking us into a new technological period… Modern educational innovation is what I crave as a student. 😉
  • Continue to offer different things using mobile devices.
  • Being able to study for test on mobile devices.

Because of this feedback, we began implementing mobile learning options for our students. I will write more about the different ways to jumpstart mobile learning in your courses in a future post but this one is specifically on our completely mobile course we developed using Blackboard Mobile.

Why Blackboard Mobile?

The majority of the online courses we offer are developed using Blackboard. It made sense for us to leverage the knowledge we already had when developing a mobile course. We also liked some of the tools available in Blackboard Mobile. We decided that for our first mobile course we would offer Mobile PE (Lifetime Fitness).  Note: This course is 100% mobile for students only. Currently, teachers still need to do the grading, etc using a desktop or laptop computer.

Why Lifetime Fitness?

We’ve offered online Lifetime Fitness for several years. Kids love it! Mobile devices allow us to leverage new and exciting ways to learn the content in the course. Also, lifetime fitness, by name logically relates to movement and exercise, which is done away from a standard computer.

How is the course designed?

This was our first attempt at designing an online course to run completely on mobile devices. However, we referred to Basic Principles of Mobile Learning Design to help us get started.

  • Modules are small to allow students to easily start & stop.
  • The discussion boards and blogs tools work great in Blackboard mobile so we designed the assignments around these tools. Currently, neither the assignment tool nor the test tool are mobile friendly so we did not use them for this course.
  • The Check Grades tool also works well so students can check their grades at their convenience.
  • Types of Assessments Include:
    • Discussion Board.  The discussion board tool works pretty well in BB Mobile. We did have to create a thread inside each discussion board with the prompt in it to ensure that the students can see the prompt. 
    • Public Blogs.  Similar to the the discussion boards, these look great in BB Mobile. Students are able to post pictures to the blogs in collaborative assignments. 
    • Private Blogs – I presume that in the future Blackboard will make the assignment tool and/or the test tool mobile friendly, but currently they are not (meaning you have to click “view in browser” and then zoom in and out in order to complete the assignment or test).  Because of this, we used the private blog so students could submit their responses to their teacher privately. It’s a good alternative if you keep in mind two things: 1) Students don’t want to type long essays using their keypad so you will want to minimize the data entry and 2) For teachers, grading a blog may be more time consuming than the regular “assignment tool” assignments.
    • Free iOS apps (there is no textbook) but the students download the apps to practice and learn from as they progress through the units. Its much more than just reading the content thanks to these cool apps. The teacher also developed a list of extra websites and “additional apps” just in case an app dissappears from the appstore, is no longer free, or if an app doesn’t install correctly for whatever reason on the student’s device. Then once a student learns the topic using the app, they post the answers to questions related to the app using the “private blog” assignment tool. Some of the apps we use include the Nike Training App, Target Weight, Heart Rate, Calorie Counter, Daily Burn, and GoLearn Cycling.
  • Navigating Mobile Lifetime Fitness:

  • Module View of Mobile Lifetime Fitness:

 

  • Snapshots from Course. Additionally here are some views of the course.
    1coursemap3module12discussionboard2-5discussionboards

We also built in mobile surveys using Surveymonkey throughout the course to get feedback from students on what they like and what they think could be better about the course. This data will be crucial as we integrate mobile learning components in future courses.

By the way, in case you missed the earlier post, here are 14 Crucial Tips for Mobile Learning Design. Blackboard also has some Best Practices for Mobile Learning with BB Mobile.

What do you think about Mobile Learning? Do you have any suggestions on design tips for an effective mobile course?

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This information was shared thanks to Idaho Digital Learning.

Why Every Educator Should Be on Twitter

I used to wonder why someone would want to get on Twitter when there was Facebook. It seemed to be an unnecessary duplication of what I was already doing. But then… It happened!

At the ISTE2011 Conference I started meeting some amazing people. Now its kind of awkward to ask someone you barely know for their email adress and even if you did, you may not feel comfortable contacting them very often. But after hearing some of the presenters mention they were on Twitter I decided the time had come and I was finally going to try it out. “After all, I’m into Technology, I probably should be on Twitter”, I thought. So with that, I set up my account. Now just a few months later I’m sold!

Why Every Educator Should Be on Twitter.

1. You can follow anyone, but particularly the people you are interested in for your career field or interests. I follow people who are into the same tech-learning things I am, Edtech, mobile learning, instructional design, etc. Then I get to see the resources, “nuggets of wisdom”, news, or tips they share all related to what I am interested in. I don’t use Twitter like Facebook, its more of a Professional Learning Community for me. If I followed everyone like I do on Facebook, it would be more difficult to sift through all the tweets to get to the relevant information. One tool you could use to help find people to follow is Wefollow.

2. You can network with people you would otherwise never be able to.  If I want to know what educators in other places are doing, then I search for them and follow them. Amazing as it is,  there are hundreds of people doing exactly what you are doing and some might be doing it a little bit better! 😉 I may retweet their link or message, or send them a question asking about their tweet. You definitely get to know lots of people and the world seems much smaller. Its great to learn from the top professionals in your region (or the world), not to mention the added bonus of getting your foot in the door if you ever need a job somewhere. Twitter opens it all up.

3. Learn emerging trends relevant to your field right when it happens. With the Internet blazing forward and more and more educational resources available, why not tap into that knowledge? It’s nice particularly for teachers that are always trying to find the best tools, websites, and resources without having to reinvent the wheel. An added bonus is that almost every author or educator you hear about is posting information, resources, links etc on a daily basis. No need to wait until the next conference to be blown away by emerging trends that are being implemented everywhere else, you can glean some amazing insight just by checking the tweets and start implementing what you learn in your schools now.  Most schools, institutions, & businesses are on twitter too, many of which tweet about sweet deals. 😉

One suggestion is to simply set aside a few minutes each day to skim the tweets, open the relevant links in seperate windows and as you have time check them out or share what you learned to your followers. Similar to Facebook, Twitter doesn’t need to take over your life, just a few minutes a day checking in on the experts can make a huge difference in your professional learning.

Those are my thoughts on Twitter. The funny thing is when I’m done with this post I’m going to Tweet it out and everyone that sees it is already on Twitter and recognizes its importance. So just in case, I think I’ll post it on Facebook too. 

Oh by the way, you can follow me at Twitter.com/kodystimpson

Here above is a video on “Twitter for Educators” embedded from Youtube. If you are training faculty to use Twitter, it may help them understand what it is and why its such a powerful tool.

14 Crucial Tips for Mobile Learning Design

When I first started studying mobile learning and how instructional design for mobile differs from regular online courses, I searched the Internet and would have appreciated a list like this to give me a few pointers to start out. My hope is that this list benefits you and that if you have some tips, you’ll leave them for me in the comments area below. 😉 There is still so much to learn about mobile learning design.

1. Structure

Unlike regular online courses, mobile device learning should be structured in such a way that a user can easily stop & re-start their learning in episodic patterns. Keep in mind students might be on the bus, at a game, or somewhere where learning may be full of distractions

Students also appreciate open navigation (ability to move around and choose the topics as they like) more than the traditional locked-down step by step navigation.

2. Smaller Chunking

Group your content so that chunks of information can be quickly accessed and completed in short periods of time. This allows students to learn on the go and complete as they multi-task. Extensive reading on a mobile device is only ideal when content is chunked and interesting 😉 

3. Minimize Typing

Typing on a mobile device is not as easy as typing on a keyboard. Its that simple. 😉 Keep this in mind as you design your assignments by trying to minimize data entry. Using multiple choice, true false, and matching questions can help with this, but also try and think outside the box. Mobile devices allow for interesting simulation practices and assignments beyond just regular multiple choice type questions. Leverage the new ways of interacting that can be done with mobile devices!

4. Daily Events

The more daily events you can have the student correlate with their learning the better. Its all about making the course relevant to their life.

5. Integrating Location

Take advantage of where students are located and allow them to integrate where they are and what they are doing there with the learning activities and discussions. Topics can integrate location into different learning activities. What perspectives might they add to the course just by living in a specific region or area?

6. Communication and Discussions, Polls, Blogs, & Surveys

Students want to communicate and share just-in-time real world experiences with other students. Polls & surveys also allow students to express opinions and get answers to questions.

Similar to a blog, students can post pics/videos/audio they take with their phone and share it with classmates. One free mobile blog tool I use is wordpress.com

7. Podcasts & Vodcasts

Content for the lesson should be accessible in a variety of formats: readable written text, audio podcast, and a video vodcast of the lesson.  One statistical analysis reported that students believed podcasts to be more effective than their own notes to help them learn.

8. Non-Graded Practices

Non-graded practices encourage students to practice without fear of failure. These practices can help prepare them for an assignment, quiz, or test.

9. Leverage Existing Educational Apps

No need for an etext! There are some excellent educational apps that can increase the quality of the course (many of which are free). Students can track themselves and play around with the app, then log findings as part of their assignments. The apps must work on all mobile devices allowed for the course.

10. Consider which devices you will support

Devices vary and what works on an Android OS may not work on an iOS and vice versa.  Users with the Iphone have higher satisfaction than those with only iTouch or iPad. Constant connectivity increases satisfaction.  One study found that a phone seems to be the best device because of the connectivity but requiring one in order to take a course will definitely deprive some students from participating.

11. Avoid costs to Students

Keep in mind the size of files you use for mobile learning. If the student is incurring costs to learn via their mobile devices, that is problematic. Try and keep images, videos, and other files as small as possible for downloading and use.

12. Find Grades Fast

Students want to see & understand grades easily. According to a mobile survery we sent to students last year, one of the tasks that they wanted most was the ability to check their grades anytime on their mobile devices.

13. On Demand Alerts

Alerts & text reminders sent for office hours, when student’s grades are posted, discussion reply notifications, etc helps increase retention. This also helps students return to the course more often. After all, who can stay away from Hanging with Friends after you receive an alert telling you that its your turn to play! 😉

14. Testing, Testing, and more Testing

Test your course on the devices you plan to support. Keep in mind that complete course redesign around mobile technologies is significantly more challenging than including a few mobile tools into an existing course. Some suggest you only incorporate one or two mobile components into your existing course and try them out. If you have done this, please let me know how it went by leaving a comment below.

Also, always have alternatives in case the app  or mobile tool you chose to use is no longer available or problems arise (which they often do). Having alternative available and testing on multiple devices will help you side-step a lot of the issues that may occur.

If you are curious about how a completely mobile course would work, here is a post on a Mobile Lifetime Fitness course we designed that runs completely on a mobile device using some free apps and Blackboard Mobile.

 

So what other mobile learning design tips do you have? Do you agree or disagree with any of these? Please let me know your thoughts in the comments area below. Mobile Learning Design is so new there is definitely a lot of room for discussion.

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Resources:

Designing Learning Activities with Mobile Technologies, Designing Learning Activities with Mobile Technologies, Hokyoung Ryu & David Parsons.

Effectiveness of Mobile Learning in Distance Education. Dr. Muhammad Imran YOUSUF, Lecturer, Division of Continuing Education, University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Students Attitudes & Perceptions Towards the Effectiveness of Mobile Learning, Dr. Fahad N. Al-Fahad. King Saudi University

The effectiveness of m-learning in the form of podcast revision lectures in higher education. Chris Evens. Centre for Educational Multimedia, Brunel Business School, Brumel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UP8 3PH, UK

2009 Mobile Learning Report: Abilene Chrisian University, Abilene Christian University

Mobl21. http://www.mobl21.com/blog/21/some-best-practices-for-mobile-learning/

6 Tips: Maximize Learning with Interactivity in Courses

Student to Content Interactivity

Interactivity can refer to a lot of things. In the online learning world, it often refers to collaboration & communication often done in discussions, blogs, chats, webinars, etc. However, the tips that follow are specifically for increasing the interactivity between the student and the content in your course. Although you may not have access to all the tools mentioned, just knowing about the possibilities may help you consider the options for increasing interactivity.

 

1) Presentation Interactions.

Many presention lessons are locked-down funnelling the student from one topic to the next without allowing them any choice as to the order of topics covered or any interaction beyond read and click next. Consider adding a tabbed menu or navigation buttons in your presentation to allow students to choose how to navigate the lesson.  This tiny bit of freedom can empower students as they take a bit more control of their own learning.

For example, the image below shows how interactivity can allow students to choose which character they want to learn about. The opposit of this is when you have a powerpoint slide locked down slide by slide going through each and every character begining to end. Why not allow students the ability to choose?

Snag-1539

 Here are a few examples to give you a better idea from Articulate:

PowerPoint Tip: Do you use Powerpoint for your lessons?  If you want a free tabbed template, there is one available here for free from Articulate. Using this template, you can put your lesson in there with the different topic headings and then students can choose which topic they want to go to. You may also be interested in these tips for spicing up your presentations. On a side note, if you use powerpoint and want to convert your powerpoint slides to flash, you can use this iSpring Free plug-in to convert it to flash which makes it very easy to then upload it into an LMS and students access it without powerpoint. Its pretty simple and free.

2) Video Interactions. 

Thinking back to High School, everyone loved “video” days where the room would be dark and students could just relax and take a nap for an hour or so… probabably not what the teacher had hoped for but often the outcome.  Yes, a huge part of the problem is the quality of videos displayed but that is a seperate topic. Fortunately for online courses, one idea you can do to help students from dozing off is to use either Camtasia Quiz Feature or Raptivity to add questions or callouts to your videos.

During the video, every few minutes, there is a pause and a multiple choice or essay question appears (the student awakes..”oh, I have to actually listen to the video”, so he or she restarts the video and begins to pay attention a bit more).  By incorporating these popup questions or callouts during the video, students are more likely to pay attention and teachers can ensure that the key concepts they want to emphasize are pointed out.  In the face to face classroom, a teacher may pause a video to ask a question. This simply allows that same type of interjected interaction for an online course.

Activvideo

Here are a few examples of video interactions from Raptivity.

3) Practice Interactions. 

Practice makes perfect so why not allow students to practice a bit before they have to complete a graded assessment? Interactive practices and simulations help students practice what they have studied and encourages them to self-identify which areas they need to study more. Automatic feedback found in practices can be a powerful learning tool to help students before they have to complete a graded assignment, quiz, or test.

Classify

Here are a few practices examples from Raptivity.

4) Learning Games.   

Multiple choice & true false questions are common for learning vocabulary and knowledge so why not put them in a simple learning game and make it fun? Placing learning games prior to quizes or tests can be a great review for the students. Its similar to any other mutiple choice practice but way more fun. After all who wouldn’t want to play the Millionaire Challenge!

GameshowGolfshort

Here are a few other examples from elearningbrothers.com:


5) Miscellaneous Interactions.

These interactions are important but may not fit in other categories. Learning obejcts such as flashcards, tables, and charts which the students can interact with can be more effective than just a simple image.

Labelthegraphic

A few examples from Articulate:

 
6) Mobile Interactions.

Students are always on the go and the majority are already using mobile devices. Integrating mobile components can dramatically increase their interactivity with your course by making it accesible to them wherever they may be.

Much of the examples mentioned previously published to Flash which works great on desktop computers and laptops. However, most don’t work on mobile devices. If you have questions about why mobile-friendly content should be in your courses, check out this video on Mobile Technology.

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I’m going to post more on this topic in a later post but for now, here are just a couple links to some options for creating mobile content for online courses.

What other tools have you used? Any other ways to increase the student-content interactivity?

6 Ways Student to Content Interactivity with Multimedia Helps Students Learn!

Step 1: Read the next 100 pages of the textbook
Step 2: Do the assignment

Yikes!  Have I seen this before? Unfortunately, yes. Have you? Maybe so. So why does this still exist in some online courses? The student to content interaction is super important and is so much more than just looking at the words of a text reading.

As blended learning/online educators, we talk a lot about the student to student interactions in online classes as well as the student to teacher interactions through discussion boards, blogs, email, text, etc.  For this post, I want to focus only on the student to content interactions (that are hopefully aligned to the goals & objectives of the course).

If you’ve ever evaluated an online course, you probably noticed that some have a lot of highly engaging interactive content, while others are pretty basic (read these pages, now do the assignment) Sound familiar? 😉

Thankfully, there are a ton of great ways to increase student-to-content interaction that will not only make courses more enjoyable for students, but also will help them learn more!
Some include:

  • Presentation Interactions – interacting with the content of the lesson, not just reading
  • Video Interactions – not just watching a video on youtube
  • Practice Interactions – the lesson is more than read this and now do this.
  • Learning Games – games can be fun and stil effective if designed properly
  • Misc Interactions – diagrams, tables, flashcards, etc
  • Mobile Interactions – take advantage of their mobile devices to help them learn

For more information on these types of interactions, you can read more about them here.

So with all these different types of interactions. What are the benefits? Here are just a few. This was taken from research I gathered a while ago so excuse the “unbloglike” and more “reportish” writting style. 😉

Ihelps

6 Ways Increasing Student-to-Content Interactivity with Multimedia Helps Students Learn.

1.     Increases Learning

Steven Hick, a Carleton University Professor stated that not only does interactive multimedia have a strong positive effect on learning, but that learners learn faster and have better attitudes towards their learning experience. – Benefits of Interactive Multimedia Courseware.

 In a study by Forrester Research, respondents identified the lack of interactivity 56% of the time as the most common obstacle to a successful elearning strategy.  – Overcoming human obstacles to E-learning.

A study was done to determine whether the addition of interactivity to a computer-based learning package enhances the learning process. The result was that interactive systems facilitate deep learning by actively engaging the learner in the learning process. – The Interactivity Effect in Multimedia Learning.

Studies also show that at-risk students and students with special needs benefit from using interactive multimedia. Bagui explains that “multimedia may make it easier for people to learn because it can supply “stimulating environments” that “encourage students involvement” in the learning process. – Technologies for Education.

In addition to these studies, a major transportation company reported an increase in bottom-line performance of over 35% which equated to millions in increased revenues and savings when integrating interactive multimedia to their training. Learners also showed a 40% increased in learning retention. – ROI with Blended E-learning.

2.     Enables Students with Varying Learning Styles to Learn in a Variety of Ways

Interactive multimedia, when used correctly, enables students to learn in a variety of ways addressing several learning styles and modalities. – Educational Benefits of Interactive Multimedia, – Innovative Teaching, Cognitive Styles and Computer-aided Learning.

Researchers Mishra & Sharma found that interactive multimedia is also capable of presenting “true-to-life” situations. Decision tree simulations, video simulations, and simple animations that allow learners to learn-by-viewing, learn-by-doing, or learn-by-coaching are all effective methods for developing a practical skill and increase retention. – Interactive Multimedia in Education and Training.

3.     Provides Consistent and Continuous Feedback

Interactive self assessments provide feedback that help students improve. – Blackboard Exemplary Course Requirement. This feedback encourages students to feel safe and try because they know that they can fail without humiliation.  When they feel free to try, it enables them to learn. – Articulate Elearning Blog.

4.     Increases Retention with a Shorter Learning Time

Over 30 studies have found that interactive technologies reduce learning time requirements by an average of 50 percent – Learning Benefits of Interactive technologies. Interactive multimedia keeps learners interested in the content while reinforcing the skills. It encourages learners to return again and again through continual practice.

Research has shown that people remember 20% of what they see, 40% of what they see and hear, but about 75% of what they see and hear and do simultaneously. Interactive multimedia has been shown to elicit the highest rate of information retention and results in a shorter learning time. – Innovative Teaching, Benefits of Interactive Multimedia Courseware.

5.     Empowers and Motivates while Eliciting a Positive Attitude Towards the Course Content

Interactive multimedia is more likely to be enjoyed by learners than non-interactive content. It elicits positive attitudes towards the application and students feel empowered and more in control of their learning. – Benefits of Interactive Multimedia.

Students are able to learn better since they use multiple sensory modalities (hearing, seeing, and doing).  They are motivated to pay more attention to the information presented and better retain the information. – Innovative Teaching.

6.     Offloads Repetitive Teaching Tasks that Allow Teachers to Focus on Specific Issues.

Interactive multimedia offloads repetitive training tasks and allows facilitators (or teachers in our case) to focus on other issues. – Benefits of Interactive Multimedia Courseware.

A military organization found an increase in the ability to correctly diagnose and repair aircraft systems the “first time” by more than 80% when interactive multimedia was integrated into their training. – ROI with Blended E-learning.

I’m sure there are a lot of other benefits out there but what do you think?  I’d love to hear your thoughts on all this. What have you found? Please leave a comment below.
 

Resources:Benefits of Interactive Multimedia Courseware, by Steven Hick Ph.D. Professor, Carleton University
1997 by Trican Multimedia Solutions Inc.  

Cognitive Styles and Computer-Aided Learning (CAL): Exploring designer and user perspectives. Paper presented at the PATT-11 conference: New media in education, Eidenhoven, the Netherlands. Atkinson, S. (2001).

Educational Benefits of Multimedia. R.S. Gilliver, B. Randall & Y.M. Pok (1998), ‘learning in cyberspace: shaping the future’, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Vol. 14, No 14, 212-222)

Innovative Teaching: Using Multimedia in a Problem-Based Learning Environment – Mai Neo and Ken T. ‘K. Neo, Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Malaysia 2001

Interactive Multimedia in Education and Training, Sanjaya Mishra & Ramesh C. Sharma. 2005

Learning Benefits of Interactive Technologies. Miller, R. L, Multimedia and Videodisc Monitor, February 1990, pg. 14

ROI with Blended E-learning, White Paper Report, 2001

The Interactivity Effect in Multimedia Learning, Centre for Educational Multimedia. Chris Evans & Nicola J. Gibbons. Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH, UK.

The Rapid E-learning Blog, Three Things I learned about learning on my deathbed. Tom Kuhlmann http://www.articulate.com/rapid-elearning/